In many branches of commerce the client visits the Shop regularly but this is not true of the watch business, where he only appears to have a new strap or perhaps to have the watch cleaned. A clever salesman will profit from these visits, even if they are only occasional, to show the client his new range of models.
It is interesting to consider what happens to
a watch during ten years of use. The owner
thinks himself lucky if during this time he has
no need to call on the repaìrer. He seldom follows the sound advice to have his watch over - thinking that such advice is
not unbìassed, particularly if an overhaul is re-
commended every six months. He gets used to
the increasingly irregular performance which
often gets gradually worse. The owner of
a watch gets used to its appearance., and thus
one will see both well-dressed men and women
wearing an old and thoroughly nondescript
looking watch. They may have seen the latest
models in the shop window but have never
decided to come in. If they were able to wear
a modern watch, they would appreciate
how ridiculous their old model looks! It is
worth occasionally showing up this difference
in your window; take care to see that
people enter your shop with pleasure and without any misgivings, and try to create a pleasant
atmosphere with the customer feeling that you
really want to serve him. Thus the advertising
you may do in your own window and through
the press will be the more effective. Your success will be great if you can develop a community of interest with your client; bring out
the desire to have an accurate watch.
Where can One find a Watchmaker
who can make Promises regarding
the Accuracy of a Watch?
The answer is simple; there are none, particularly when we are dealing with wrist-watches.
An exception to this is when one is dealing with
watches kept in one position and at constant
temperature. Under thßse circumstances the
rate may be predicted.
The Wrist-watch may on the average receive
between 7,000 and 40,000 shocks or jars per
day its position and temperature are continually
changing. The movements of the arm
may involve acceleration up to seven times that
due to gravity. These external conditions will
affect the rate of the watch in a manner which
cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. However, the efforts of Watch designers are tending
to reduce the sensitivity of watches to these
external effects. In the ease of precision wrist-
watches it has been found that the rate when
worn on the arm lines not differ by more than
one to three seconds per day from the rate
under static conditions in the observatory.
All watchmakers know that the adjustment
of a watch is the result of a complex compromise. According to the quality of the Watch, the
rate in the various positions will differ more or
less widely. When the amplitude of the balance
decreases, the watch will be liable either to gain
or lose, and variations of temperature will also
have -some effect on the rate. The task of the
adjuster is to balance the errors involved, one
against the other, so that the nett result is small
and the client is satisfied.
Recently attempts have been made to simplify
the adjustment of wristwatches by developing
a machine which automatically puts the watch
under test through numerous changes of posi-
tion, and the watch will then be adjusted under
more or less << live >> conditions. This machine
has the advantage of showing up certain hidden
defects, but it is essential to guard against drawing hasty conclusions from the rates observed.
Movements of the arm Vary from man to man
and cannot be reprûduced faithfully by any machine. Thus there is no reliable method of
making promises to the purchaser regarding
the accuracy of his Watch, but one may wonder
whether this is sufficient reason for omitting
any mention of it.
Why behave as if the Performance
of a Watch was a secret?
Since it is impossible to say categorically to
the client that such and such a watch will gain
or lose so many seconds per day in wear, the
Salesman prefers to hold his peace. He wins
over his client by many arguments but omits
to mention accuracy. The purchaser is thus left
in ignorance and may complain of the poor quality of his purchase. He interests himself in the
external presentation and wants a good-looking
watch for everyday use, and perhaps a non-
magnetic movement protected against shocks
and enclosed in a watertight case. Nevertheless,
he wants something which will tell the exact
time. The hidden qualities and defects show up
quickly enough and make the purchaser either
content or disgruntled.
Tell the purchaser what you know about the
rate of his watch. Tell him straight out that
it will gain thirty seconds per day lying and
lose ten hanging, which, for the price asked, is
not a bad performance. Tell him that he must
notice how it performs in actual wear, and that
according to his observations a correction of
rate must be made. The purchaser will appreciate it more if you give him the necessary information and show your desire to correct the
regulation of his Watch to Suit his own particular
movements, etc. Take care to interest your
clients in the question of accuracy, and they will
come your Way more often.
The Stability of Rate of a Wrist-watch
A well-made 15-jewelled lever watch should
have a very stable rate. A watch of this type
in Wear will gain or lose each day approximately
the same number of seconds, and will continue
to do so for two or three years. The same will
be seen to be true if the Watch is run continually
in one fixed position, and you thus have a ready
means of evaluating the quality of the watch. A
poor watch will gain considerably one day, While
the next it may even lose; an irregular rate of
this kind is the hallmark of a badly
Only a decent quality watch has anything
approaching a stable rate. The manufacturer
should make a strong effort to attain this result
and be sure that the rate will remain stable.
To achieve that., it is essential in addition to
perfection in design and in the quality of the
components to have the assembly carried out
cleanly and carefully, and for the oil used to
be of the best quality obtainable. A stable rate
is easily lost, and it would suffice for example,
to leave it exposed to the sun in the window to
compromise all the efforts of its manufacturer.
Do not lay yourself open to this trouble., and
the annoying surprises which it can cause. Only
watches with a stable performance will satisfy
The Client can check the Performance
of his Watch
Anyone can easily check his watch against
time signals., and he will do so if he happens
to be interested and that by their use
he can improve his watch’s performance. There
are therefore three things to recommend to a
purchaser who wishes to carry out such a check:
1. Always wind the watch at the same time, preferably in the morning.
2. Use the same time signal each day at the same time.
3. Record the errors of the watch and don’t trust your memory
It is up to you to awaken the client's enthusiasm for a test of this kind. Both he and yourself can derive benefit from it.
Make Use of the available Facilities
for Improving the Rate of the Watches
you have sold
Two points should be noted; a good watch
has a stable rate, and everyone can easily
observe any errors.
It is not a sound plan to sell a watch which
gains 40 seconds per day, but has a variation
of rate of only plus or minus 5 seconds. The
owner will note the continual gain., and will be
aggravated because he is not getting the best
out of his watch. He will not come back to you
to correct the rate unless you ask him to do so.
Therefore, let everyone know that you are
capable of effecting such improvements to rate.
To carry out adjustments, the rate and its
variations must be known as they actually occur in wear.
When the watch is sold, you should
advise the purchaser to observe the rate of his
watch for six to ten days. You will thus obtain
important information on the performance of
the watch and, which is still more important,
the client will thus he able to realise that he has
made a good purchase. Demonstration of this
quality is more important than the excellerice
of the watch itself.
By checking the performance of the watch
the owner establishes a closer contact with it
and also between himself and the watchmaker.
It is more advantageous from your point of view
to have a purchaser who checks his watch than
one who does not. Contact with the actual user
is better than any machine for simulating
Encourage the Owner of the Watch
to observe its Rate for six to ten Days
Many people, particularly young people, are
interested in technical details. If they are in-
different to them, it is up to you to combat this
indifference. Make things easy for them and
show them the advantages and value of their
collaboration. Hand out to those concerned a
printed card which they may fill up.
Improve the Rate of your Watch
Result of Trial
Observe your watch as follows:
| Observe Your Watch as Follows
|| Reading of Hands
| 1. Wind it at the same hour every day preferably in the morning
|| -20 seconds
| 2. Compare the reading of the hands with a time signal at the same time each day.
|| +10 >>
| 3. Note the errors each day in the space provided. If the watch is gaining mark it with a plus sign; a minus sign will signify a loss.
|| +45 >>
| 4. If you are not pleased with the performance of your watch come and see me. I will bring it to time and if that cannot easily be done, I will give it a thorough examination.
|| +1 minute 15 seconds
|| +1 >> 50 >>
|| +2 >> 30 >>
There are endless possibilities of making such
a trial interesting. Have published in the Press:
<< Mr. Jones has improved the performance of
his watch. He has observed it for ten days and
found that it gained 70 Seconds per day. Naw
his watch gains only 10 seconds per day. We
have been able to correct it, thanks to the in-
formation supplied by Mr. Jones. Check the rate
of your watch: in our shop, ..., they will tell
you how to carry out the necessary test. >>
It would be worth indicating on the card the
charge for any correction.
A card filled in by the owner informs you
at once as to its rate. The ownerïs observations
can be used by you., and should be compiled as
in the following table:
||Indication of Watch
|| Daily Rate
|| Variations of Daily Rate
|| +1m 15s
|| +1m 50s
|| +2m 30s
The column under Daily Rate shows how
much the watch has gained or lost since the
preceding day. For example, the indication has
changed from minus 20 to plus 10 seconde from
the first to the second day; the rate will therefore be plus 30 seconds per day. The third column shows the variations of daily rate. That
is to say, the differences between the numbers
in the second column. For the third day the
difference 35-30 = +5 seconds. For the following day the difference is 30 - 35 = -5 seconds.
From your point of view, the most important
quantity is the variation nf daily rate. If this
is large you are dealing with a bad watch or
one which needs cleaning. Perhaps there is a
defect, often in the baîance, balance spring, or
regulator. Large variations of rate are easy to
correct by moving the regulator.
A client who takes the trouble to check the
performance of his watch should he treated with
tact. He should gain the impression that you
wish to be of service to him, and give him this
service without thinking first of your profits.
In case of doubt, first try a simple correction with the regulator before recommending
that the watch be cleaned, and do not forget
that after you have made a correction the
client will check his watch for an improvement,
as he will have paid for the work done.
A client whose watch you have improved is
a client definitely gained. Your standing as a
walchrnaker will be recognised and you will
enter into closer contact with your clientele;
make use of this advantage, which can only be
possessed by a watchmaker of standing. You
may thus convince the prospective purchaser of
the excellence of your products, and in the long
run such conviction is more important than sales talk.
It is your Job and not that of the Owner
to use the Regulator
In watertight watches this difficulty does not
arise; on the other hand, the case may be easy
tu open, and there are always those who make
out lhat they are watch repairers. On the reverse of the card explain why it is only you
who should correct the rate of the watch.
If you have a timing machine (Vibrograf,
Chronomatic etc.) this is the time to use it;
show how moving the regulator index thick-
ness of a hair is sufficient to change the rate of
the watch by 20 seconds a day. The timing ma-
chine allows the accuracy of the watch to be improved, since it gives an instantaneous indication of the effect of any adjustment. Perhaps a
watch is gaining 50 seconds per day; if the
timing machine shows 70 seconds gain itl the
lying position you can reduce this to 30 seconds
gain. Since you can rapidly determine the rate
in lhe various positions you will Soon know what
possibilities there are of easily improving the
performance of the watch.
You, as the Specialist, the trained man, are
the only one capable of saying whether merely
moving the index is sufficient; you can examine
the curb pins to see if they need correction, or
whether the movement needs cleaning. It may
be that you have to change the pinning of attachment of the balance spring at the collet.
Why is it necessary to improve
the Performance of Watches?
To begin with you will see the difficulties
which you will encounter. There is a need for
accurate watches; take care that the watch is
adjusted by a competent watchmaker, for to
increase its accuracy is to make obvious your
The accuracy of the watch awakens the in-
terest of your client; it is the best form of
advertisement. The Shop window and the press
show what is available, but by improving the
performance of watches you will make people
more time conscious. The owner of a watch
which varies 5 seconds per day will be discon-
tented if it suddenly varies 30 seconds; your
clients will call on you more often and bring
in their watches. They will say that at your
shop one can buy the most accurate watches,
everyone will know that at your premises they
will get good service, and you will not have to
go to much trouble to persuade a prospective
customer to buy; facts speak for themselves.
It is obviously necessary to guard against
exaggeration. There will always be fanatics who
expect minor errors of a few seconds per day
to he eliminated, in other words who will ask
the impossible of you. Point out in this case
that a watch is a remarkably small machine
which surpasses many others in accuracy, but
which is nevertheless susceptible to wear and
It is a necessity of present day life to know
the right time, and if one can trust one’s watch
one feels the more certain of oneself, and can
therefore get more done.
Tell the client that you are in a position to
furnish him with the correct time, and prove
that you are as good as your word; he will come
and visit you more often.
Watches which perform well are better than